herbier ancien beau

Create a herbarium

Make a herbarium 1.

Collecting plants: botanizing The first step in the process consists of botanizing, ie going out to collect plants (in their natural habitats) with the aim of studying them. Plants are harvested in dry weather, preferably in spring or summer, and at the time of flowering and fruiting.
Whenever possible, harvest the whole plant (root, stem, leaf, flowers). This will facilitate subsequent identification work. Similarly, information available on the environment must be reported. They will be reported on the board as follows:
- Author of the crop
- Location (being as precise as possible) of the harvest
- Ecology of the place (characteristics of the environment)
- Date

It is possible to harvest plants, lichens, mosses, fungi, diatoms, algae, with the exception of plants considered protected (the list of which is available online at https://www.iucn.org/ ).

The harvest must remain reasoned, respecting the site and the flora present. To facilitate the harvesting and Harvesting of a plant Copyright. beech path
Copyright Harvest Envelope. Gérard Di Pasquale P age 3 | 4 Above all, to avoid confusion on return, it is recommended to classify each sample taken in a different envelope or pouch.

2. Dry the plants

As soon as the harvest returns, the plants must be dried in order to remove their moisture and prevent them from rotting in the herbarium afterwards. This step is very important because it conditions the final rendering and impacts the longevity of the herbarium board. Each plant is laid flat between two blotting papers or two sheets of newspaper and placed in a press. Alternatively, substantial weights, such as stacked books, can be used. Newspapers or blotters are changed every 2-3 days for 5-7 days so that the plant does not mold. When the plant is completely dry, it is ready to be fixed on a support.

3. Identify plants
Plants are identified using a determination key. A set of morphological and genetic criteria will make it possible to deduce the family, the genus, the species of the studied plant.
The system for classifying living plants is called binomial classification.
Like other scientific disciplines such as medicine or entomology, the usual language is Latin. It makes it possible to have a unique mode of communication which facilitates international exchanges in this field and has the advantage of temporal continuity with the research of our predecessors without the need for translation.

Since Linnaeus and his binomial classification, scientific research has progressed towards the phylogenetic classification (genetic criteria) it is currently the 4th version which is used. Scientific progress makes this classification more and more precise and has highlighted similarities between certain plants making them closer than previously thought.

This has given rise to changes, sometimes profound, in the classifications by making it possible to readjust the observations of the period. Thus it is not uncommon to find the presence of different names to designate the same plant or family depending on whether the herbarium board has gone through many classifications until today. Do not hesitate to consult the Botanical Gardens to help you identify plants (and/or www.tela-botanica.org).

4. Create the board
Traditionally, the assembly is done on flying paper with fish glue. The latter can, nowadays, be replaced by adhesive strips or industrial glue. The herbarium can drying with copyright newspapers. SandraPuppy Identification key Copyright. Book Fnac Traditional Editing Copyright. JB Bordeaux P age 4 | 4 end up on media other than paper, but this is quite exceptional.
Ex. We found a herbarium on a banana leaf.

A label is added to each of the sheets with the following information: The plant / Genus / Species / Vernacular name (French) / Author of the harvest / Place / Ecology of the place / The person who identified the plant / The person who made the bed (some people being specialized in this field) / Date / Use(s)

Traditionally, this label was written in pen. Today, labels can still be written by hand but also via computer assistance. They can also be replaced by barcodes containing this information.

Problems and solutions

Herbarium label
➢ During production: - Plant identification problems. It is sometimes difficult to identify a plant. In case of doubt, the advice of a plant professional is desirable. Botanical gardens and conservatories are examples of aids available for plant identification.

➢ During storage:
- Pests. Some flying insects can damage collections. An insect repellent device such as a UV light helps to avoid this problem. Rodents can cause rapid damage. Again, prevention most often avoids this problem. Otherwise, a specialized company must be called in. Molds and crawling insects are also to be feared. Among professionals, cryogenization prior to the addition of boards to the collection is systematically carried out. Once the latter have been sterilized by cold, the risk of contamination is nil.
➢ The old treated plates During the study of old herbarium plates, it is possible that some were treated with corrosive sublime (mixture of arsenic + lead). It is detected visually because the plants are often very dark brown in color and leave a strong imprint on the paper. If a suspicion is detected, the work must then be carried out in the necessary safety measures, namely: the use of a cartridge mask and an extractor hood.
These provisions make it possible to avoid harmful gaseous emanations that may come from the herbarium boards.
Source: Living Treasures Herbarium Book – Botanical Garden of Bordeaux
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